I. Fundamentals

# Other Rhythmic Essentials

Bryn Hughes, Mark Gotham, and Chelsey Hamm

Key Takeaways

• A is a type of in which a beat (or subdivision, or multiple beats) in simple meter is divided into three parts. Notate a triplet by writing a “3” above the appropriate rhythm.
• A is a tuplet in which a beat (or subdivision) in compound meter is divided into two parts. Notate a duplet by writing a “2” above the appropriate rhythm.
• refers to the patterns of accentuation at the metrical level. are placed above measures (centered) to demark these patterns of accentuation.
• happens when there are rhythmic accents, which can be created by ties, dots, rests, and/or dynamics.

# Borrowed Divisions

Typically, a meter is defined by the presence of a consistent beat division: division by two in simple meter, and by three in compound meter. Occasionally, composers will use a triple division of the beat in a simple meter, or a duple division of the beat in a compound meter. , are a type of in which a beat (or subdivision, or multiple beats) in simple meter is divided into three parts. Triplets are sometimes thought of as “borrowed” from compound meter, because the beat in compound meter is usually divided into three parts.A triplet is notated by writing the number “3” on top of an appropriate rhythm, as seen in Example 1.

Triplets may occur at both the beat division and subdivision levels, as seen below in the second measure of Example 2.

Triplets also may occur across multiple beats, as seen in Example 3.

A is a tuplet in which a beat (or subdivision) in compound meter is divided into two parts. Duplets are notated by writing the number “2” on top of an appropriate rhythm, as seen in Example 4.

Like triplets, duplets can occur at the subdivision level, as seen in Example 5.

Counting for these rhythms is usually “borrowed” as well. For example, triplets are usually counted 1-la-li, while duplets are usually counted 1-and, 2-and etc.

# Meter Beyond Measure (Hypermeter)

We have seen that beats are either accented or non-accented, which was observed in the discussion of conducting patterns in the previous two chapters. Groups of measures can also form patterns of accentuation, especially at faster tempos. refers to these patterns of accentuation at the metrical level. In order to identify patterns of accentuation across multiple measures, we place above measures (centered). Example 6 shows an example, along with a recording:

Example 6. Eight measures of the “Scherzo” of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 (1824). Listen to a recording.

While listening to Example 6, try conducting along to the hypermetrical numbers, in a quadruple pattern. By doing this you will be able to feel (and hear) which measures are accented (1 and 3) and which are not (2 and 4).

# Syncopation

Often rhythm and meter work together to create and reinforce a “grid” which you can feel by conducting along to a work. happens when there are rhythmic accents, which can be created by ties, dots, rests, and/or dynamics. Example 7 shows several different syncopated rhythms with proper counts:

Example 7. Different examples of syncopated rhythms.

In m. 1, the rhythm is syncopated due to ties, while in m. 2 it is syncopated because of both a dot and a tie. In m. 3 the rests create a sense of syncopation, while in m. 4 the syncopation is the result of dynamics (accents). See Chapter 78: Rhythm and Meter for more information about syncopation.

Online Resources

Assignments from the Internet
Assignments
• Triplets and Duplets, Hypermeter, Syncopation) (.pdf, .docx)