Citations By Chapter


Freire, P. & Macedo, D. (1987). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. Bergin & Garvey.

Geiger, A. W. (2018, August 27). America’s public school teachers are far less racially and ethnically diverse than their students. Pew Research Center.

History of the OER movement (2021, March 18). Open Education Handbook.

Horkheimer, M. (1972). Critical theory. Seabury Press.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 159–165.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: A.K.A. the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84(1), 74–84.

Creative Commons (n.d.). Open education.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). Backward design. In Understanding by design (pp. 13–34). ASCD.

Chapter 1

Boser, U. (2014). Teacher diversity revisited: A new state-by-state analysis. Center for American Progress.

Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation [CAEP] (2020a). Standard 3: Candidate recruitment, progression, and support.

Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation [CAEP] (2020b). Vision, mission, & goals.

Council of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO] (2011, April). Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue.

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1(8).

D’Amico, D., Pawlewicz, R.J., Earley, P.M., & McGeehan, A.P. (2017). Where are all the black teachers? Discrimination in the teacher labor market. Harvard Educational Review, 87(1), 26-49.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Teacher education and the American future. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1–2), 35–47. doi:10.1177/0022487109348024

Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53(4), 286-315.

Derman-Sparks, L., & Ramsey, P. G. (2006). What if all the kids are White? Anti-bias multicultural education with young children and families. Teachers College Press.

Fain, J. G. (2008). “Um, they weren’t thinking about their thinking”: Children’s talk about issues of oppression. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(4), 201-208.

Freire, P. (1973). Education for critical consciousness. Bloomsbury.

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Teachers College Press.

Geiger, A. W. (2018). America’s public school teachers are far less racially and ethnically diverse than their students. Pew Research Center.

Gorski, P. C. (2013). Reaching and teaching students in poverty: Strategies for erasing the opportunity gap. Teachers College Press.

Harro, B. (2000). Cycle of socialization. In M. Adams et al. (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice (pp. 15-21). Routledge.

Hegarty, S. (2001, January 21). Newcomers find toll of teaching is too high: Among those quitting are non-education majors thrust into challenging classrooms. St. Petersburg Times. News/012101/TampaBay/Newcomers_find_toll_o.shtml

Klein, R. (2017, April 12). Why aren’t there more black teachers? Racial discriminiation still plays a role. Huffpost.

Milner, H.R., & Howard, T.C. (2004). Black teachers, black students, black communities, and Brown: Perspectives and insights from experts. The Journal of Negro Education, 73(3), 285-297.

Muijs, D., Kyriakides, L., van der Werf, G., Creemers, B., Timperley, H., & Earl, L. (2014). State of the art: Teacher effectiveness and professional learning. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 25(2), 231-256.

National Center for Education Statistics [NCES] (2020a, May). Characteristics of public school teachers.

National Center for Education Statistics [NCES] (2020b, May). Racial/ethnic enrollment in public schools.

NYU Steinhardt (2018, January 16). Teacher residency programs: A clinical way to prepare educators.

Otto, S. A. (Ed.) (2004). Tongue-tied: The lives of multilingual children in public education. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Stronge, J.H. (2018). Qualities of effective teachers: An introduction. ASCD.

Thompson, O. (2019, June). School desegregation and black teacher employment. National Bureau of Economic Research.

U.S. Department of Education (2016). The state of racial diversity in the educator workforce.

Walker, R.J. (2008). Twelve characteristics of an effective teacher. Educational Horizons, 87(1), 61-68.

Wells, A.S., Fox, L., Cordova-Cobo, D. (2016). How racially diverse schools and classrooms can benefit all students. The Century Foundation.

Wheeler, R. S., & Swords, R. (2006). Code-switching: Teaching Standard English in urban classrooms.  National Council of Teachers of English.

Chapter 2

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.§12101 et seq.

Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1977). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. Human Memory, 7-113.

Bateman, D.F., & Bateman, C.F. (2014). A principal’s guide to special education. Council for Exceptional Children.

Berk, L.E. (2000). Child Development (5th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.

Bray, B. (2019, March 10). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Blackfoot (Siksika) Nation beliefs. Rethinking Learning.

Bridgman, T., Cummings, S., & Ballard, J. (2019). Who built Maslow’s pyramid? A history of the creation of management studies’ most famous symbol and its implications for management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 18(1), 81-98. 

Carter, E.W., Moss, C.K., Asmus, J., Fesperman, E., Cooney, M., Brock, M.E., Lyons, G., Huber, H.B., & Vincent, L.B. (2015). Promoting inclusion, social connections, and learning through peer support arrangements. Teaching Exceptional Children, 48(1), 9-18.

CAST. (2018). Universal design for learning guidelines.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.

Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 20 U.S.C. §1401 et seq.

Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). Norton.

Finke, E.H., McNaughton, D.B., & Drager (2009). “All children can and should have the opportunity to learn”: General education teachers’ perspectives on including children with autism spectrum disorder who require AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 25(2), 110-122.

Gardner, H. (2004). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons (2nd ed.). Basic Books.

Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: Educational psychology interactive. Valdosta State University.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. (2004).

Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (May, 2020). Students with disabilities.

Lai, S.A., & Berkeley, S. (2012). High-stakes test accommodations: Research and practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(3), 158-169.

Maslow, A. H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. Arkana/Penguin Books.

McLeod, S. (2018). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Michel, K. L. (2014, April 19). Maslow’s hierarchy connected to Blackfoot beliefs. A Digital Native American: Views of a Ho-Cunk Journalist.

Minnesota History Center. (2020). State hospitals: Historic patient records: Faribault state school and hospital.

Piaget, J. (1972). The psychology of the child. Basic Books.

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 Regulations, 34 C.F.R. §104.1 et seq.

Smith, T.E.C. (2001). Section 504, the ADA, and public schools: What educators need to know. Remedial and Special Education, 22(6), 335-343

Sousa, D.A., & Tomlinson, C.A. (2018). Differentiation and the brain: How neuroscience supports the learner-friendly classroom (2nd ed.). Solution Tree Press.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), “Local Education Agency Universe Survey,” 2018–19. See Digest of Education Statistics 2020, table 204.20..

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language. MIT Press.

Wehmeyer, M., Shrogen, K.A., & Kurth, J. (2020). The state of inclusion with students with intellectual and developmental disabilities in the United States. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 18(1), 36-43.

Yell, M. (2019). The law and special education (5th ed.). Pearson.

Chapter 3

Anderson, J. D. (1988). The education of blacks in the South, 1860-1935. University of North Carolina Press.

ASCD (n.d.) Whole child.

Berliner, D. C., & Biddle, B. J. (1995). The manufactured crisis: Myths, frauds, and the attack on America’s public schools. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955).

Butchart, R. E. (2010). Schooling the freed people: Teaching, learning, and the struggle for black freedom, 1861-1876. University of North Carolina Press.

Coe, G. A. (1935). “Blue prints” for teachers? The Social Frontier, 1(7), 26-27.

Counts, G. S. (2011). Orientation. In E. F. Provenzo, Jr., (Ed.)., The social frontier: A critical reader, pp. 19-25. Peter Lang.

Cremin, L. A. (1972). American education: The colonial experience, 1607-1783. Harper Collins.

DeBray, E. H. (2006). Politics, ideology, & education: Federal policy during the Clinton and Bush administrations. Teachers College Press.

Dewey, J. (1944). Democracy and education. The Free Press.

Edutopia (2011, October 6). Social and emotional learning: A short history.

Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962).

Elazar, D. J. (1969). Cooperation and conflict: Readings in American federalism. F. E. Peacock, Inc.

Fabricant, M., & Fine, M. (2012). Charter schools and the corporate makeover of public education: What’s at stake? Teachers College Press.

Fairclough, A. (2007). A class of their own: Black teachers in the segregated South. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Foner, E. (2012). Give me Liberty! An American history. W. W. Norton & Company.

Held, D. (1980). Introduction to critical theory: Horkheimer to Habermas. University of California Press.

Kelle, J. F. (1996). To illuminate or indoctrinate: Education for participatory democracy. In J. N. Burstyn (Ed.), Educating tomorrow’s valuable citizen, pp. 59-76. State University of New York Press.

Kliebard, H. M. (1995). The struggle for the American curriculum, 1893-1958 (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).

Madaus, G., Russell, M., & Higgins, J. (2009). The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools, and society. Information Age Publishing, Inc.

McClellan, B. E. (1999). Moral education in America: Schools and the shaping of character from colonial times to the present. Teachers College Press.

Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717 (1974).

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).

Powell, S. D. (2019). Your introduction to education: Explorations in teaching (4th ed.). Pearson.

Ravitch, D. (1983). The troubled crusade: American education 1945-1980. Basic Books.

Ryan, J. E. (2010). Five miles away, a world apart: One city, two schools, and the story of educational opportunity in modern America. Oxford University Press.

Spring, J. (2008). The American school: A global context from the Puritans to the Obama era (8th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 402 U.S. 1 (1971).

The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (n.d.). School desegregation and equal educational opportunity.

The U.S. Department of Justice (n.d.). Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

Tyack, D., & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Harvard University Press.

Urban, W. J., & Wagoner, J. L. (2009). American education: A history (4th ed.). Routledge.

U.S. Department of Education (n.d.). Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

Waldman, K. (2015, May 19). Slave or enslaved person? Slate.

Webster, N. (1965). On the education of youth in America. In F. Rudolph (Ed.), Essays on education in the early republic, pp. 41-77. The Belknap Press of Harvard University.

Chapter 4

Barnum, M., & LeMee, G.L. (2019, December 5). Looking for a home? You’ve seen GreatSchools ratings. Here’s how they nudge families toward schools with fewer black and Hispanic students. Chalkbeat.

Brookhart, S. M. (2013). The public understanding of assessment in educational reform in the United States. Oxford Review of Education, 39(1), 52-71.

Carter, P. (2005). The modern multi-age classroom. Educational Leadership. 63(1).

Chen, G. (2018). A relevant history of public education in the United States. Public School Review.

Census Bureau. (2015). Public elementary-secondary education finance report, 2013 data.

EdBuild. (2020). Funded: National Policy Maps. Edbuild.

EdChoice. (2019). Fast facts on school choice. EdChoice.

Epple, D, Romano, R. E., & Urquiola, M. (2017). School vouchers: A survey of the economics literature. Journal of Economic Literature, 55(2), 441-492.

Frankenberg, E., Siegel-Hawley, G., & Wang, J. (2011). Choice without equity: Charter school segregation. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 19(1), 1-54.

Grant, J., Richardson, I., & Forsten, C. (2000). In the loop. School Administrator.

Institute on Race and Poverty (2008). Failed promises: Assessing charter schools in the Twin Cities.

Lombardo, C. (2019, February 26). Why white school districts have so much more money. NPR.

Powell, S.D. (2019). Your introduction to education: Explorations in teaching (4th ed.). Pearson.

Prothero, A. (2018, August 9). What are charter schools? EdWeek.

Education Week (2004, September 21). Tracking.

Trites, N. (2017). What is co-teaching? An introduction to co-teaching and inclusion. Classroom Practices, Special Education.

U.S. Department of Education. (2009). Race to the top.

U.S. Department of Education. (2010). An overview of the U.S. Department of Education.

U.S. Department of Education. (2019). Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

Virginia Department of Education (2021). Private schools and home schooling.

Waldorf Education (n.d.). FAQs about Waldorf.

Chapter 5

Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203 (1963).

ACLU Fact Sheet. (2016, September). You have the right to be yourself: Know your rights school dress codes, gender, and self-expression. American Civil Liberties Union.

ACLU Legal Bulletin. (2020). The establishment clause and public schools. American Civil Liberties Union.

Ali v. Woodbridge Twp. Sch. Dist., No. 19-2217 (3d Cir. Apr. 22, 2020).

American Library Association. (2006). Notable first amendment court cases.

Association of American Educators (AAE). (2019). Code of ethics for educators.

Barrett, K. (2018, July). When school dress codes discriminate. NEA Today.

Bartels v. Iowa, 262 U.S. 404 (1923).

Benninga, J.S. (2013). Resolving ethical issues at school. Issues in Teacher Education, (22)1, 77-88.

Bethel School District v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986).

B.H. v. Easton Area Sch. Dist., 725 F.3d 293 (3d Cir. 2013).

B.L. v. Mahanoy Area Sch. Dist., 376 F. Supp. 3d 429 (M.D. Pa. 2019).

Board of Education v. Earls, 536 U.S. 822 (2002).

Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District No. 26 v. Pico by Pico, 457 U.S. 853 (1982).

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. No. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241 (1964).

Compulsory Attendance, Code of Virginia, § 22.1-254 (2020).

Connick v. Myers, 461 U.S. 138 (1983).

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2013). InTASC Model core teaching standards and learning progressions for teachers.

Davis v. Monroe County Bd. of Educ. – 526 U.S. 629, 119 S. Ct. 1661 (1999).

Doninger v. Niehoff, 527 F.3d 41 (2d Cir. 2008).

East Hartford Education Association v. Board of Education, 405 F. Supp. 94 (D. Conn. 1975).

Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962).

Equal Access Act, 20 U.S.C. § 4071 (1984).

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015).

Fagan v. Summers, 498 P.2d 1227 (Wyo. 1972).

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), 20 U.S.C. § 1232 et seq. (1974).

Fitzsimons, T. (2020, August 27). Teacher reinstated after parents complained about Black Lives Matter, LGBTQ posters. NBC News.

Goldhaber, D. & Hansen, M. (2010, May). Using performance on the job to inform teacher tenure decisions. Brief 10. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research. Urban Institute.

Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565 (1975).

Guiles v. Marineau, 461 F.3d 320 (2d. Cir. 2006).

Hart, K. (2010, September). What teacher tenure is – and what it’s not. NEA Today.

Hazelwood School District et al. v. Kuhlmeier et al., 484 U.S. 260 (1988).

Hortonville Joint School District No. 1 v. Hortonville Education Association, 426 U.S. 482 (1976).

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). 108 U.S.C. § 1248 et seq. (2003).

J.D.B. v. North Carolina, 564 U.S. 261 (2011).

Kahlenberg, R.D. (2015, Summer). Tenure: How due process protects teachers and students. American Educator.

Krizek v. Cicero-Stickney Tp. High School D. 201, 713 F. Supp. 1131 (N.D. Ill. 1989).

Lee, A.M.I. (n.d.). Every student succeeds act (ESSA): What you need to know. Understood for All.

Lee, V.E. & Smith, J.B. (1996). Collective responsibility for learning and its effect on gains and achievement and engagement for early secondary students. American Journal of Education, 104, 103–147.

Legal Information Institute. (n.d). 20 U.S. Code § 7946 Limitation on liability for teachers. Cornell Law School.

Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971).

Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Prevention Act, S.909 U.S.C. (2009).

Nabozny v. Podlesny, 92 F.3d 446 (7th Cir. 1996).

National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). (2020, July). Education legislation: Bill tracking.

National Constitution Center. (2015, October). 10 important Supreme Court cases about education.

National Constitution Center. (2020, July). 10 Supreme Court cases about the 14th amendment.

National Education Association (NEA). (2019). Code of ethics.

New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325 (1985).

O’Connor v. Ortega, 480 U.S. 709 (1987).

Palmer v. Board of Ed. of City of Chicago, 466 F. Supp. 600 (N.D. Ill. 1979).

Partin v. Vernon Parish School Bd., 343 So. 2d 417 (La. Ct. App. 1977).

Pendleton Civil Service Act. (1883).

Pickering v. Board of Education, 391 U.S. 563 (1968).

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).

Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982).

Pygas, M. (2020, October 1). Teacher says she was fired for wearing “Black Lives Matter” mask. Megaphone.

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S. (1973).

Sherwin, G. (2017, May). 5 things public schools can and can’t do when it comes to dress codes. American Civil Liberties Union.

Staros, K. & Williams, C.F. (2007, January/February). Search and seizure in the schools. Social Education, 71(1), 27-32.

Sternberg, R.E. (n.d.). Attending to teacher attire: School leaders wage a tense campaign to maintain a staff’s professional look. The School Superintendents Association.

Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980).

T.B. et al. v. Independent School District 112, Case 0:19-cv-02414-MJD-BRT (N.D. Minnesota Sep. 3, 2019).

Thomas, J.A. (2019, September). 11 landmark SCOTUS cases that changed American education. Education Law, ABA Journal.

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969).

Underwood, J. (2018). The state of teacher tenure. Phi Delta Kappan, 99 (7), 76-77.

United States Courts. (n.d). What does free speech mean?

U.S. Department of Education. (2020a, January). Protecting students with disabilities.

U.S. Department of Education. (2020b, January). Sexual Harassment Guidance.

U.S. Department of Education. (2020c, January). Office of Civil Rights (OCR).

U.S. Department of Education. (2015, April). Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Office of Civil Rights.

U.S. Department of Education. (2010, August). Free appropriate public education for students with disabilities: Requirements under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Office of Civil Rights.

U.S. Department of Education. (2001). Teacher liability protection § SEC. 2366. Limitation on liability for teachers.

U.S. Constitution, First Amendment.

U.S. Constitution, Fourth Amendment.

U.S. Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment.

Vacca, R. (2014, April). Search and seizure 2014: Legal and policy issues. The Commonwealth Educational Policy Institute (CEPI) Education Law Newsletter.

Waggoner, C. (2008, January). What teachers wear to school: The administrative dilemma. OpenStax CNX.

Chapter 6

Armstrong, P. (n.d.). Bloom’s taxonomy. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.           wn%20as%20Bloom’s%20Taxonomy,Analysis%2C%20Synthesis%2C%20and%20Evaluation.

Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of

educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive       domain. David McKay Company.

Common Core State Standards Initiative (2021). Standards in your state.

Common Goal Systems (2021). What is standards-based grading?

Estes, T. H., Mintz, S. L., & Gunter, M. A. (2015). Instruction: A models approach. Pearson.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. ASCD.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum.

Great School Partnerships (2021). Grading principles and guidelines.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212-218. 10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2

Milner IV, H. R. (2017). Confronting inequity / reimagining the null curriculum. ASCD.

Quinn, D. M. (2021). How to reduce racial bias in grading. Education Next, 21(1).

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. ASCD.

Chapter 7

Ackerman, C.E. (2020, April). 25 mindfulness activities for children and teens. Positive Psychology.

Adichie, C. (2009, July). Chimamanda Adichie: The danger of a single story [Video]. TED.

Anda, R.F., Porter, L.E., & Brown, D.W. (2020). Inside the adverse childhood experience score: Strengths, limitations, and misapplications. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 59(2), 293-295.

Center on the Developing Child: Harvard University. (2015, April 22). InBrief: What is resilience? [YouTube video]. Harvard University.

Child Welfare Information Gateway. (n.d.). Definitions of child abuse & neglect.

Constable, R. (2016). The role of the school social worker. In C. Rippey Massat, M. S. Kelly, & R. Constable (Eds.), School social work: Practice, policy, and research (p. 3–24). Lyceum Books.

Edwards, P. (2016). New ways to engage parents: Strategies and tools for teachers and leaders, K–12. Teachers College Press.

Feletti, V., Anda, R., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D, Spitz, A., Edwards, V., Loss, M. & Marks, J. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245-258.

Ferlazzo, L. (2011). Involvement or engagement? Educational Leadership, 68(8), 10-14.

Finley, T. (2017, September 11). Black girls are seven times more likely to be suspended than white girls: Report. Huffpost.

Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain and Education, 7(3), 182-195.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. Doubleday.

Hofmann, S.G., Sawyer, A.T., Witt, A.A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 78(2), 169-183.

Hughes, K., Bellis, M., Hardcastle, K., Butchart, A., Mikton, C., Jones, L., & Dunne, M. (2017). The effects of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet: Public Health 2(8), 356-366.

Hutton, S. (2018). Figure 8 breath [Video]. YouTube.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10(2), 144-156.

Mersky, J., Topitzes, J., & Reynolds, A. (2013). Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S. Child Abuse Neglect, 37(11), 917-925.

Mindful Schools (n.d.). Research on mindfulness.

National Association of Social Workers (n.d.). Code of ethics.

Schonert-reichl, K.A., Oberle, E., Lawlor, M.S., Abbott, D., Thomson, K., Oberlander, T.F., & Diamond, A. (2015). Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology 51(1), 52-66.

School Social Work Association of America. (n.d.) Role of school social worker.

Sornson, B. (2014). Developing empathy in the classroom. Corwin Connect.

Smith, J. A. (2015, May 25). Teachers of all races are more likely to punish black students. Huffpost.

U.S. Department of Justice (2017). U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2005 through 2017.

van der Kolk, B. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. Penguin Books. (n.d.). 51 Mindfulness activities for kids in the classroom.

Zelazo, P.D., & Lyons, K.E. (2012). The potential benefits of mindfulness training in early childhood: A developmental social cognitive neuroscience perspective. Child Development Perspectives 6(2), 154-160.


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Brigham Young University faculty survey seeks to advance open education through academic libraries” by Jessica Duensing for is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Hands World Earth Drawing” by Pixy is licensed under CC0.

Brown wooden table and chairs” by Ivan Aleksic is licensed under CC0.

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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Maslow hierarchy of needs” by Anthony Beck is licensed under CC BY.

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Zone of proximal development” by Dcoetzee is licensed under CC0.

“Social Optimisation Stages” by ForbesOste is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Image from page 18 of ‘Mental defectives in Virginia‘” by Internet Archive Book Images is in the public domain.

State school at Fairbault for the feeble minded” by the British Library is in the public domain.

Curb cut for wheelchair ramp” by Nick-philly is licensed under CC BY-SA.

UDL guideliens overview” by Don Glass, modified by Chrissie Butler is licensed under CC BY-NC.

Cesar Ramos” by Djh57 is licensed under CC BY.

Tee ball player swinging at ball on tee 2010” by Skoch3 is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Autism infinity symbol” by janeb13 is licensed under CC0.

Chapter 3

A general map of the middle British colonies in America” by the Library of Congress is in the public domain.

Page of illustrated alphabet from New England Primer, 1721: letters A through F” by the Library of Congress is in the public domain.

Untitled” by pxfuel is licensed under CC0.

Noah Webster” by James Sharples is licensed under CC0, at the bequest of Charles Allen Munn, 1924.

Thomas Jefferson” by GPA Photo Archive is in the public domain.

First normal school in America, Lexington, Mass” by the Tichnor Brothers is in the public domain.

Horace Mann” by Josiah Johnson Hawes is licensed under CC0, as a gift of I. N. Phelps Stokes, Edward S. Hawes, Alice Mary Hawes, and Marion Augusta Hawes, 1937.

Catherine Beecher” by Schlesinger Library is licensed under CC0.

The Freedmen’s Bureau” by A.R. Waud is in the public domain.

Booker T. Washington” by Pixabay is licensed under CC0.

NAACP founder and advocate of action W. E. B. Du Bois: 1945” by Addison N. Scurlock is licensed under CC BY-NC.

Photograph of Chiracahua Apache Indians after training at the Carlisle Indian School” by the U.S. National Archives is in the public domain.

President Roosevelt taking the oath of office, Mar. 4 1905” by the Library of Congress is in the public domain.

The automobile industry–1923” by Jasperdo is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.

Dewey-john-young” by Vampire285 is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Simple blueprints” by j4p4n is in the public domain.

Civil rights march on Washington, D.C.” by Warren K. Leffler for the Library of Congress is in the public domain.

Sputnik” by de:Benutzer:HPH is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Brown vs. Board of Education national historic site” by Jasperdo is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.

Lindabrownsegregation-2” by unknown is licensed under CC BY-SA.

“International (IC Bus) CE Series School Bus” by JLaw45 is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Department of Education–NCLB door” by Raul654 is licensed under CC BY-SA.

President Bush signs No Child Left Behind Act” by the U.S. National Archives is in the public domain.

Chapter 4

HOLC map 1937” by Dale Winling is licensed under CC BY-NC.

“School governance at federal, state, district, and school levels” by Melissa Wells is used with permission.

Money” by kschneider2991 is licensed under CC0.

Chapter 5

“closed door” by crodriguesc is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

“Work Files” by Zach K is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

“Listen, Understand, Act” by highersights is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

“You’re making decisions by consensus, but are you collaborating?” by opensourceway is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Primum non nocere” by Uniraniano is licensed under CC BY-SA.

US Supreme Court building” by Duncan Lock is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Scales of justice” by Michael Coghlan is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Fair contract now” by Brad Perkins is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Speech icon voice talking audio speech” by mcmurryjulie is licensed under CC0.

Dialogue” by Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is in the public domain.

School lockers hallway” by Pixy is licensed under CC0.

Concept of data privacy and policy” by Delesign Graphics is licensed under CC BY.

Untitled” by pxhere is licensed under CC0.

Chapter 6

“A comparison of standards and curriculum” by Janine Davis is used with permission.

Faculty meeting” by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for EDUimages is licensed under CC BY-NC.

Backwards design process” by Breana Bayraktar is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.

“Gradual release of responsibility framework” by Melissa Wells is used with permission.

Bloom’s Taxonomy” by Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Scale” by Megan Shannon is in the public domain.

Four elementary students examine plants” by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for EDUimages is licensed under CC BY-NC.

Shallow focus photography of spiderweb” by Robert Anasch is licensed under CC0.

Chapter 7

Untitled” by Amanda Mills is licensed under CC0.

“Cultural iceberg” by Melissa Wells is adapted from “iceberg above water” by MoteOo is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Diagram showing some of the main areas of the brain” by Cancer Research UK is licensed under CC BY-SA.

“Brain development and trauma” by Melissa Wells is used with permission.

Untitled” by HaticeEROL is licensed under CC0.

The role of a school social worker” by the School Social Work Association of America is used with permission.

Traffic lights ahead” by So Monggo is licensed under CC BY-SA.

“Angry birds behavior chart” by Melissa Wells is used with permission.

Chapter 8

“Creative Company Conference 2011” by Sebastiaan ter Burg is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Fourth-grade teacher with class” by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for EDUimages is licensed under CC BY-NC.

“Tutoring” by cityyear is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0


Cover image:  “Kindergarten boy with teacher” by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for EDUimages is licensed under CC BY-NC.

Part I image:  “Socially distanced high school students and bus” by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for EDUimages is licensed under CC BY-NC.

Part II image:  “Three middle school girls in hallway with notebooks” by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for EDUimages is licensed under CC BY-NC.


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Foundations of American Education: A Critical Lens Copyright © by Melissa Wells and Courtney Clayton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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