This section introduces students to how Western classical composers use harmony to create a sense of trajectory in a phrase of music. It begins with basic diatonic harmony and ends with tonicization and modulation to closely related keys.
This section assumes a familiarity with the topics covered in Fundamentals. It’s helpful, but not necessary, for students to have studied some counterpoint as well, particularly the introductory chapter of that section.
The chapters are organized around two principles: (1) the and (2) bass-line patterns. The section starts by examining phrase endings since these are relatively formulaic, then moves to beginnings, and finally takes on middles.
The first chapter introduces the phrase model, defines , and discusses how composers create phrase endings via . It only uses I and V chords.
In the next four chapters, students learn to strengthen cadences using V7 (root position only) and strong predominants (IV and ii(6)), and the cadential [latex]^6_4[/latex]. It’s important that students learn about embellishing tones before reading the cadential [latex]^6_4[/latex] chapter.
The next six chapters complete the study of diatonic harmony, focusing first on how to expand the tonic at the beginning of the phrase, then on how to create length in the middle of a phrase.
Indicates the typical order and flow of harmonic functions in a phrase: tonic–predominant–dominant(–tonic).
A relatively complete musical thought that exhibits trajectory toward a goal (often a cadence).
A melodic and harmonic goal. In classical tonal music, cadence types include Perfect Authentic (PAC), Imperfect Authentic (IAC), and Half (HC).