- ii7–V7–Ima7 in major, or ii∅7–V7–i7 in minor, is a fundamentally important progression in traditional jazz.
- The progression can be identified through a combination of by fifths plus its distinctive sequence of (–– in major, or –– in minor).
- Because this progression is so important to jazz, the concept of applied chords can expand to include applied subdominant chords—i.e., the ii chord.
- Incomplete ii–V–Is, i.e., ii–Vs, can also be identified because the combination of root motion and quality is so distinctive.
All the examples end in perfect authentic cadences (PACs). But the similarities don’t end there: each PAC is preceded by the ii chord. So we have three chords, each related to the next by fifth.
This ii–V–I progression is one of the most important progressions in jazz music. You can find it reliably at cadences, but also as a building block that occurs throughout a tune. When the progression occurs in a major key, as in the snippets in Example 1, the chord qualities of these chords are mi7–7–ma7. When the tune is in minor, the shift in mode changes the quality of the harmonies to ∅7–7–mi7 (the V chord is major whether you are in a major or minor key). Both of these progressions and a typical voice-leading pattern are summarized in.
is a useful concept in music theory, used in many ways within this book (pop harmony, for one). Put simply, schemas are common patterns our brains can recognize, even when variations are altering a specific presentation of that schema.
The ii–V–I progression is an example of a schema. It happens so frequently that informed listeners can recognize the schema in many formats. Some examples of alterations are given in Misty,” the ma7 chord is replaced with a 6 chord (this occurred in “My Funny Valentine” in Example 2 also). In “Prelude to a Kiss,” the typically dominant-quality V chord is replaced with an augmented chord (the minor seventh is preserved). The V chord is altered in “A Night in Tunisia,” but this time, the fifth is lowered instead of raised.. In “
An important marker of is the chord’s . This is most obvious in the case of the dominant seventh quality, since it has “dominant” in the name. Fully diminished chords also have dominant function.
The compositional technique of capitalizes on the relationship between quality and function by taking dominant chords out of their key and dropping them into a new key. The applied dominant chords retain their function as dominant chords even when applied to a chord other than I (this concept is fully explained in the Tonicization chapter).
The omnipresence of ii–V–I as a schema in jazz means that in this style, we can have not only applied dominants, but applied ii chords as well. In other words, the entire ii–V–I progression can be used in keys other than the tonic key to another chord. The association between these chord qualities and root motions is so strong that a ii–V progression need not even resolve to its I chord to create the effect of a ii–V.
Take the rest of the A section of “Afternoon in Paris” as an example ( ). Not only does it end with a ii–V–I progression, but it begins with two other ii–V–Is: one tonicizing B♭ major, which is ♭VII in the key of C, immediately followed by another in A♭ major, which is ♭VI in the key of C.
By relating all possible ii–V–I motions together, we can come up with a space in which these progressions operate, and visualize how the ii–V–Is in “Afternoon in Paris” are related. This idea comes from Michael McClimon (2017), and his “ii–V space” is reproduced in . The space is arranged as the circle of fifths (note the letter names at the end of each progression), with each chord in the circle preceded by a ii–V.
There are four different variations of arrows in, and each signifies a different transformation from the first chord to the chord at the other end of the arrow. The two solid arrows have to do with root motion: the black arrows connect chords within a ii–V–I schema, while the gray arrows show the circle-of-fifths relationships. The dashed arrows show changes to chord quality. The larger dashes indicate that the chord is the same except that the seventh has been lowered, so each larger-dashed arrow connects a ma7 chord to a (dom)7 chord with the same root. The smaller dashes show that the chord is the same, but the third has been lowered: each smaller-dashed arrow connects a 7 chord to a mi7 chord with the same root.
traces the progressions in “Afternoon in Paris” that were annotated in . Notice how the space helps to illustrate the logic of the progression: by transforming the preceding Ima7 chords into ii7 chords, it forces a modulation down by whole step.
Understanding a piece through the ii–V schema
The logic of a chromatic progression like the one in Lee Morgan’s “Ceora” becomes more intelligible when viewed through this lens. An analysis originally by McClimon is explained in the video below ( ).
A particularly common version of applied ii–Vs comes in what is called the . In the broadest sense, a turnaround is a progression that serves to loop back to the original tonic chord, and the typical progression that achieves this is I–vi–ii–V–I. Using the concept of applied chords, we can substitute a V7/ii for the vi chord, since they share the same root. But we can also precede that V7 with its ii chord—effectively, a ii/ii (two of two). Thus, the ii chord of the turnaround is tonicized with its own ii–V–(I) progression. This tonicized version of the turnaround is a very common variant ().
The schema has diatonic and chromatic variants.
- Aebersold, Jamey. 1974. The II–V7–I Progression. Vol. 3. Jamey Aebersold Play-A-Long Series. New Albany, IN: Jamey Aebersold Jazz.
- McClimon, Michael. 2017. “Transformations in Tonal Jazz: ii–V Space.” Music Theory Online 23 (1). http://mtosmt.org/issues/mto.17.23.1/mto.17.23.1.mcclimon.html.
- ii–V–I worksheet (.pdf, .docx). Worksheet playlist Note that these lead sheets are not public domain and thus cannot be posted here; however, the lead sheets are not difficult to find if you search the internet or ask around.
- Composing with ii–V–I worksheet (.pdf, .mscz, .musicxml). This functions as a preparatory assignment for the Tin Pan Alley AABA Composition.
- afternoon in paris © Megan Lavengood is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license
- McClimon’s ii–V space © Michael McClimon adapted by Megan Lavengood is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license
- ii–V space with “Afternoon in Paris” © Megan Lavengood is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license
ii7–V7–I∆7 in major, or iiø7–V7–i7 in minor. A fundamentally important progression in traditional jazz.
The distance between roots (NB: not basses!) of adjacent chords. For example, "root motion by step" refers to the distance between two chords that are only one step apart, such as I and ii, IV and V, etc.
When applied to an interval, the term "quality" modifies the size descriptor in order to be more specific about the exact number of semitones in the interval
When applied to triadic harmony, "quality" refers to the size of the different intervals that make up the harmony
A seventh chord in which the triad quality is minor and the seventh quality is also minor. For example: C–E♭–G–B♭.
A seventh chord in which the triad quality is major and the seventh quality is minor. For example: C–E–G–B♭
A seventh chord in which the triad quality is major and the seventh quality is also major. For example: C–E–G–B.
A seventh chord in which the triad quality is diminished and the seventh quality is minor. For example: B–D-F-A.
A cadence that concludes with root position V to root position I, with the tonic in the soprano.
A schema is a mental representation of a stock pattern. In music theory, the term "schema" usually refers to a prototypical chord progression or formal structure. Significantly, schemas can appear with variations while still being recognized as an instantiation of that schema. We understand an individual pattern in the music (exemplar) as a version of an ideal general pattern (prototype), and that relationship helps us understand how that pattern is functioning within a particular passage of music. Schemas are often give names, like "Meyer" or "double plagal."
Schemas can have both internal defining characteristics and normative placements within a series of musical events.
• Internal characteristics may describe a schema’s melodic features, harmonic features, and metric features.
• A schema’s normative placement describes it temporal location. For example, we will normally find a closing schema like the “Prinner” at a close of a phrase.
A category of chords that provides a sense of urgency to resolve toward the tonic chord. This cateogry of chords includes V and viio (in minor: V and viio).
A chromatic chord that temporarily tonicizes another key besides the tonic key, by taking on a dominant function in that new key.
The process by which a non-tonic triad is made to sound like a temporary tonic. It involves the use of secondary dominant or leading-tone chords.
Broadly speaking, a turnaround is the use of a non-tonic chord (usually dominant) at the end of a harmonically closed unit to transition into the beginning of the following on-tonic unit. In jazz, the term "turnaround" often refers to the progression vi–ii–V–I. The exact qualities of these chords is highly variable, and one or more of the chords may be substituted with a different, related chord.